German researchers publish full Neanderthal genome

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(Phys.org) —The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, in Leipzig, Germany, hascompleted the genome sequence of a Neandertal and makes the entire sequence available to the scientific community today.
In 2010, Dr. Svante Pääbo and his colleagues presented the first draft version of the Neandertal genome from data collected from three bones found in a cave in Croatia. They have now used a toe bone excavated in 2010 in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia to generate a high-quality genome from a single Neandertal individual. 
The Leipzig team has used sensitive techniques they have developed over the past two years to sequence every position in the genome about 50 times over, using DNA extracted from 0.038 grams of the toe bone. The analysis of the genome together with partial genome sequences from other Neandertals, and the genome from a small finger bone discovered in the same cave, shows that the individual is closely related to other Neandertals in Europe and western Russia (see Figure). Remarkably, Neandertals and their relatives, Denisovans, were both present in this unique cave in the Altai Mountains on the border between Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan. 
In the 2010 draft version of the Neandertal genome, each position was determined, on average, once. In the now-completed version of the genome every position was determined on average 50 times over. This allows even the small differences between the copies of genes that this Neandertal individual inherited from its mother and father to be distinguished. Today, the Leipzig group makes the entire Neandertal genome sequence available for the scientific community over the internet. 
“The genome is of very high quality”, says Dr. Kay Prüfer, who coordinates the analyses of the genome in Leipzig. “It matches the quality of the Denisovan genome, presented last year, and is as good as or even better than the multiple present-day human genomes available to date.”
Written By: PhysOrg
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13 COMMENTS

    • In reply to #1 by Jon Snow:

      So …who is gonna clone this critter?

      Whoever did it would have to be exceptionally brave considering the enormous legal, medical and ethical issues it would raise. I wouldn’t be surprised if it provoked an outrage comparable to that reserved for abortion clinics amongst certain groups.

      • In reply to #8 by locka:

        In reply to #1 by Jon Snow:

        So …who is gonna clone this critter?

        Whoever did it would have to be exceptionally brave considering the enormous legal, medical and ethical issues it would raise. I wouldn’t be surprised if it provoked an outrage comparable to that reserved for abortion clinics amongst certain groups.

        Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, I’m just a caveman. I fell on some ice and later got thawed out by some of your scientists. Your world frightens and confuses me! Sometimes the honking horns of your traffic make me want to get out of my BMW.. and run off into the hills, or wherever.. Sometimes when I get a message on my fax machine, I wonder: “Did little demons get inside and type it?” I don’t know! My primitive mind can’t grasp these concepts. But there is one thing I do know – when a man like my client slips and falls on a sidewalk in front of a public library, then he is entitled to no less than two million in compensatory damages, and two million in punitive damages. Thank you.

  1. I like the presentation of the different racial genomes, showing the continued historical branching of the evolutionary tree. -

    As we know – the more modern mechanised migrations are now causing extensive recombinations, from the racial sub-groups in the human populations.

    • Sounds like you want to play ……….”Let’s ask a creationist!!!!” The exciting new game where there are many many question cards but only one answer card.

      In reply to #6 by Stafford Gordon:

      I wonder what Neanderthals would make of the world now.

  2. If we cloned enough Neanderthals, perhaps we would stop all this senseless fighting among ourselves.

    If we cloned enough Neanderthals, perhaps bullying, at least of homo sapiens, would end once and for all.

    If we cloned enough Neanderthals, perhaps I would then qualify to join the Mensa society.

    If we cloned enough Neanderthals and turned them loose in the Middle East, perhaps the Palestinians and Israelis would no longer be at loggerheads with one another.

    If we cloned enough Neanderthals, the pews, much to the delight of our Christian fundamentalist friends, would soon be filled again, although, by that point, I don’t know how they could deny evolution, insofar as it would literally be staring them in the face.

    Professor Dawkins should tweet about this, doch auf Deutsch natürlich.

  3. I must say I’m surprised that it didn’t turn out to be the genome of old arthritic men. Perhaps the genome keeps growing while they live to over 900 years just like their brows, but somehow not their chins…
    – Kent Hovind

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