A new model that treats the matter in the universe as a fluid could enable researchers to retrace the flow of the cosmos back to the Big Bang. In this image, fluidlike wisps are created as ejected gas from a supernova collides with gas and dust in the surrounding interstellar medium.
To a sound wave, the cosmos has the consistency of chocolate syrup.
That’s one discovery that scientists investigating the Big Bang have made using a new approach that treats the matter in the universe as a peculiar kind of fluid. They have calculated properties that characterize the universe’s behavior and evolution, including its viscosity, or resistance to deformation by sound waves and other disturbances.
“Twenty pascal-seconds is the viscosity of the universe,” said Leonardo Senatore, an assistant professor of physics at Stanford University — just as it is for the ice cream topping.
The viscosity calculation could help cosmologists sleuth out the details of the Big Bang, and possibly someday identify its trigger, by enabling them to track the fluidlike flow of the cosmos back 13.8 billion years to its initial state.
As other techniques for probing the Big Bang reach their limits of sensitivity, cosmologists are co-opting the fluid approach, called “effective field theory,” from particle physics and condensed matter physics, fields in which it has been used for decades. By modeling the matter swirling throughout space as a viscous fluid, the cosmologists say they can precisely calculate how the fluid has evolved under the force of gravity — and then rewind this cosmic evolution back to the beginning. “With this approach, you can really zoom in on the initial conditions of the universe and start asking more and more precise questions,” said Enrico Pajer, a postdoctoral research fellow at Princeton University with a recent paper on the technique that has been accepted by the Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.
The more information that astronomers gather about the distribution of galaxies throughout space — known as the “large-scale structure” of the universe — the more accurate the fluid model becomes. And the data are pouring in. The sketchy scatter plot of several thousand nearby galaxies that existed in the 1980s has given way to a far richer map of millions of galaxies, and planned telescopes will soon push the count into the billions. Proponents believe that tuned with these data points, the fluid model may grow precise enough within 10 or 15 years to prove or refute a promising Big Bang theory called “slow-roll inflation” that says the universe ballooned into existence when an entity called an inflation field slowly slid from one state to another. “There has been a big community trying to do this type of calculation for a long time,” said Matias Zaldarriaga, a professor of cosmology at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J. Further in the future, the researchers say, applying effective field theory to even bigger datasets could reveal properties of the inflation field, which would help physicists build a theory to explain it.
“It’s obviously the right tool to be using,” said John Joseph Carrasco, a theoretical physicist at Stanford. “And it’s the right time.”
Senatore, Carrasco and their Stanford collaborator Mark Hertzberg first proposed the fluid approach to modeling the universe’s large-scale structure in a 2012 paper in the Journal of High Energy Physics, motivated by the Big Bang details it could help them glean from the increasingly enormous data sets. Other researchers have since jumped on board, helping to hone the method in a slew of papers, talks and an upcoming workshop. “We’re a small, plucky band of people who are convinced this is the way forward,” said Sean Carroll, a theoretical cosmologist at the California Institute of Technology.
A Fluid Cosmos
In water, chocolate syrup and other fluids, matter is smoothly distributed on large scales and partitioned into chunks, such as atoms or molecules, on small scales. To calculate the behavior of water on the human scale, where it is a fluid, it isn’t necessary to take into account every collision between H₂O molecules on the atomic scale. In fact, having to do so would render the calculation impossible. Instead, the collective effects of all the molecular interactions at the atomic scale can be averaged and represented in the fluid equations as “bulk” properties. (Viscosity, for example, is a measure of the friction between particles and depends on their size and shape as well as the forces between them.)
A similar trick works for modeling the evolution of the universe’s large-scale structure.
Just like water, the universe is smooth on large scales: The same amount of matter exists in one billion-light-year-wide region as the next. Slight variations in the matter distribution, such as more- and less-dense patches of galaxies, appear when you zoom in. At short distances, the variation becomes extreme: Individual galaxies are surrounded by voids, and within the galaxies, stars pinprick empty space. The matter distribution is constantly changing at every scale as gravity causes stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters alike to clump together and dark energy stretches the space between them. By modeling these changes, cosmologists can use the output — galaxy distribution data — to deduce the input — the initial conditions of the universe.
Written By: Natalie Wolchover
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